Hum Kya Chahte – Azadi

The convoluted semantics behind the separatist movement in Kashmir.

Hum Kya Chahte, Azadi. You must have heard this slogan if you’ve been tracking the ‘happenings’ in Kashmir. This slogan is often chanted during the so-called protests against the Indian state. Even after two decades of insurgency and conflict, the Azadi slogan not only dominates the sloganeering during the protests, but seems to be the favourite of those involved in the separatist movement. Chanted as if it is a holy verse.

Azadi is an Urdu word for ‘freedom’. In the context of the Kashmir conflict, the general understanding of the term Azadi is that of ‘independence’. In other words, it underlines the demand for the secession of Jammu & Kashmir State from India.

But a closer look at Azadi would furnish different details altogether. Recently, a survey was conducted by The Institute for Research on India and International Studies (IRIIS) which revealed diverse definitions of Azadi. The Jammu and Kashmir division of the Ministry of Home Affairs had commissioned The IRIIS to carry out ‘A Perception Survey of Media Impact on the Kashmiri Youth’ in June 2010. The survey was finally administered in January 2011 in six districts of the Kashmir Valley ─ Srinagar and Budgam in Central Kashmir; Anantnag and Kulgam in South Kashmir; Baramulla and Bandipora in North Kashmir.

As per the IRIIS findings, 54% of youth identified Azadi as the preferred final status of Jammu and Kashmir. That implies 46% don’t believe in Azadi. It is worthy to note that the definition of Azadi varies among even these 54%. For 56% of these 54% youth, Azadi signified the rights of Kashmiris’ ─ political rights, civil rights and economic rights. Those whose idea of Azadi is based on a ‘territorially separate Kashmir’ include 8% who see a sovereign and independent state of Jammu & Kashmir, 11% who want ‘freedom from India’ and 10% who said Azadi means a separate Kashmir without giving any further details.

Also, 67% of Kashmiri youth under the age group of 15-35 years, rank ‘corruption’ among the three top most problems, 48% put ‘human rights violation’ (by security forces) at the top, and 34% gave top priority to ‘employment’ and 28% to ‘education’.

A few surveys conducted in the past have also presented diverse results. In 2009, Chatham House, a London-based international affairs think-tank, conducted an opinion poll on both sides of the Line of Control which separates the state of Jammu and Kashmir. In its findings, only 2% of people in J&K favoured the integration of Kashmir in its entirety with Pakistan. Also, 43% in J&K voted for the ‘independence’ of the Kashmir in its entirety, implying 57% were not in favour of ‘independence’. It is important to note that 87% of people in J&K considered unemployment as the most significant problem followed by 68% for corruption, 45% for poor economic development, and 43% for human rights abuses. By the way, this is in spite of the Chatham House opinion poll being commissioned by Dr Saif al Islam al Qadhafi, son of Colonel Muammar Qaddafi who advocated ‘independence’ for Kashmir.

In 2002, another survey by MORI, an independent market research company based in UK, revealed in its findings that on the issue of citizenship, overall, 61% said they felt they would be better off politically and economically as an Indian citizen and only 6% as a Pakistani citizen, but 33% said they did not know. Again, economic development of the region (job opportunities and reduction of poverty) was proposed by 93% of respondents.

Azadi in the Jammu and Kashmir context has been reduced to just a rhetoric. Those who beat the drum of Azadi do so because of their own interests. The Hurriyat Conference, which is an amalgam of several secessionist organizations, is on the forefront of championing the so-called Kashmir cause of Azadi. It is also commonly felt that the separatists get political and economic support for this ‘cause’ from their sympathisers across border and in other foreign countries.

Time and again, there have been reports about the funding of militancy and Azadi protests through the Hawala network in J&K state. So it becomes quite natural for these separatists to beat the Azadi drum. Recently, Jammu & Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) chief Yasin Malik was charged by a local Jammu court under the Prevention of Terrorism Act (POTA) for allegedly raising funds to strengthen militancy in the state. Yasin Malik was charged with allegedly deputing two people to collect $100,000 from Kathmandu in 2002. The money was recovered from them after they were arrested later that year.

The reason for quoting these surveys is that they each contradict the claims of the champions of separatism who portray that Azadi is the demand of every Kashmiri. It is certainly not the case. These separatist elements want to impose the Azadi narrative owing to obvious reasons. One can infer from the surveys that economic development including unemployment and reduction in poverty tops the issues faced by the people of state. The Economic Survey of 2011-2012 has revealed that 21.63% population of J&K is falling under the BPL category which includes 26.14% rural population and 7.96% urban. A total of 24.21 lakh people are living under the BPL category which includes 22 lakh people in rural areas. Besides, around 6 lakh unemployed youth are registered with J&K state’s employment department. It is necessary to pay attention to the problems which have been time and again cited by the people such as corruption and unemployment. Delivering justice to the people affected by the conflict is equally important.

Moreover, few realise that Kashmir comprises only 15% of the area of Jammu and Kashmir State (Indian control) and a mere 7% of undivided Jammu and Kashmir. It is amusing and irrational to witness people talking about the secession of Kashmir despite not an iota of feasibility. J&K state needs political, social & economic empowerment. Kashmir needs freedom from separatist and fanatic elements. It is high time we bury the myth of Azadi.

Contact Varad Sharma

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  • Rayees Dar

    I always wonder what the Indian authors (99.99% of them) sell to common Indians. I mean let me agree with you for sake of argument that:

    1. Jammu Division (that includes Poonch and Rajouri) unanimously wants to stay with India.

    2. Ladakh and Leh also falls in line with Jammu.
    3. On the other side of LOC people are very upset with Pakistan (to put it as Indians like to percieve that the people on other side are just treated as cattle, I seriously advise people to kindly look into facts).
    4. Only fringe elements want secession from India and among them also only a few want merger with Pakistan,

    Then for God-sake what is the problem, why not hold a plebiscite a democratic way after all you are world’s largest democracy, and settle the issue peacefully.
    Please give an honest thought.

    • Because a plebiscite is illegal. Because of the following reasons :
      1. UN mandated plebiscite had three conditions – a) Pakistan will withdraw all forces, army and otherwise in its entirety from all of Kashmir. b) India will withdraw its army except for keeping some under UN supervision to maintain law and order c) Kashmir will join either India or Pakistan i.e. no choice of staying independent.

      2. Kashmir is the first and last bastion for the defense of India. So not going to happen. Maybe after Rahul comes to power you may have some chance but still they are slim.
      3. Illegal according to the Constitution of India. This point can not even be over-ruled by any law passed by the Assembly – so no amendment will work.
      4. India has been partitioned once. We have learnt our lesson. No more division on religious lines.
      5. The demographics of Kashmir valley has changed enormously. How it happened you know very well.
      6. Ancient Indian civilization literally began from Kashmir. Whether you call it Indian or human is another matter but Kashmir and Sanatan Dharma are too closely interlinked. At least historically.

      If you wish to have an independent Kashmir, trust me, you will have to take it from the dead, frozen and lifeless hand of India. If there are any sizeable number of Indians alive this country will never again be separated on communal lines. And thanks for pushing out the sizeable portion of Kashmiris(or they are not Kashmiris acc to you?). Kinda gave away the idea of ‘azaadi’. I remember the slogans very well. Narai tahveer Allah u Akbar. Hum kya chahte? Azadeee. Yahaa kya chalega? Nizaam e Mustafa…Kashmir ka matlab kya h? La ilaha illahah – when we first heard those – we were scared. Now? Not so much. So sorry. You will have to kill all of us to get your Islamic riyasat.